Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons of closely related malaria parasites differing in virulence and sequestration patternMore about Open Access at the Crick
Authors listJing-Wen Lin Adam J Reid Deirdre Cunningham Ulrike Böhme Irene Tumwine Sara Keller-Mclaughlin Mandy Sanders Matthew Berriman Jean Langhorne
Malaria parasite species differ greatly in the harm they do to humans. While kills hundreds of thousands per year, kills much less often and is relatively benign. Strains of the rodent malaria parasite show phenotypic variation in virulence during infections of laboratory mice. This make it an excellent species to study genes which may be responsible for this trait. By understanding the mechanisms which underlie differences in virulence we can learn how parasites adapt to their hosts and how we might prevent disease. Here we present a complete reference genome sequence for a more virulent strain, PcCB, and perform a detailed comparison with the genome of the less virulent PcAS strain. We found the greatest variation in the subtelomeric regions, in particular amongst the sequences of the gene family, which has been associated with virulence and establishment of chronic infection. Despite substantial variation at the sequence level, the repertoire of these genes has been largely maintained, highlighting the requirement for functional conservation as well as diversification in host-parasite interactions. However, a subset of genes, previously associated with increased virulence, were more highly expressed in PcCB, suggesting a role for this gene family in virulence differences between strains. We found that core genes involved in red blood cell invasion have been under positive selection and that the more virulent strain has a greater preference for reticulocytes, which has elsewhere been associated with increased virulence. These results provide the basis for a mechanistic understanding of the phenotypic differences between strains, which might ultimately be translated into a better understanding of malaria parasites affecting humans.