NF-κB1 inhibits TLR-induced IFN-β production in macrophages through TPL-2—dependent ERK activation
Authors listHuei-Ting Yang Yanyan Wang Xixing Zhao Ezana Demissie Stamatia Papoutsopoulou Agnes Mambole Anne O'Garra Michal F Tomczak Susan E Erdman James G Fox Steve Ley Bruce H Horwitz
Although NF-κB1 p50/p105 has critical roles in immunity, the mechanism by which NF-κB1 regulates inflammatory responses is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profile of LPS-stimulated Nfkb1(-/-) macrophages that lack both p50 and p105. Deficiency of p50/p105 selectively increased the expression of IFN-responsive genes, which correlated with increased IFN-β expression and STAT1 phosphorylation. IFN Ab-blocking experiments indicated that increased STAT1 phosphorylation and expression of IFN-responsive genes observed in the absence of p50/p105 depended upon autocrine IFN-β production. Markedly higher serum levels of IFN-β were observed in Nfkb1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice following LPS injection, demonstrating that Nfkb1 inhibits IFN-β production under physiological conditions. TPL-2, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase stabilized by association with the C-terminal ankyrin repeat domain of p105, negatively regulates LPS-induced IFN-β production by macrophages via activation of ERK MAPK. Retroviral expression of TPL-2 in Nfkb1(-/-) macrophages, which are deficient in endogenous TPL-2, reduced LPS-induced IFN-β secretion. Expression of the C-terminal ankyrin repeat domain of p105 in Nfkb1(-/-) macrophages, which rescued LPS activation of ERK, also inhibited IFN-β expression. These data indicate that p50/p105 negatively regulates LPS-induced IFN signaling in macrophages by stabilizing TPL-2, thereby facilitating activation of ERK.