p38γ and p38δ kinases regulate the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced cytokine production by controlling ERK1/2 protein kinase pathway activation

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Abstract

On the basis mainly of pharmacological experiments, the p38α MAP kinase isoform has been established as an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. However, the role of the related p38γ and p38δ kinases has remained unclear. Here, we show that deletion of p38γ and p38δ impaired the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand, by blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation in macrophages and dendritic cells. p38γ and p38δ were necessary to maintain steady-state levels of tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), the MKK kinase that mediates ERK1/2 activation after TLR4 stimulation. TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-10 production were reduced in LPS-stimulated macrophages from p38γ/δ-null mice, whereas IL-12 and IFNβ production increased, in accordance with the known effects of TPL2/ERK1/2 signaling on the induction of these cytokines. Furthermore, p38γ/δ-deficient mice were less sensitive than controls to LPS-induced septic shock, showing lower TNFα and IL-1β levels after challenge. Together, our results establish p38γ and p38δ as key components in innate immune responses.

Journal details

Volume 109
Issue number 28
Pages 11200-11205
Publication date

Keywords

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