The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis
Authors listUffe Hellsten Richard M Harland Michael J Gilchrist David Hendrix Jerzy Jurka Vladimir Kapitonov Ivan Ovcharenko Nicholas H Putnam Shengqiang Shu Leila Taher Ira L Blitz Bruce Blumberg Darwin S Dichmann Inna Dubchak Enrique Amaya John C Detter Russell Fletcher Daniela S Gerhard David Goodstein Tina Graves Igor V Grigoriev Jane Grimwood Takeshi Kawashima Erika Lindquist Susan M Lucas Paul E Mead Therese Mitros Hajime Ogino Yuko Ohta Alexander V Poliakov Nicolas Pollet Jacques Robert Asaf Salamov Amy K Sater Jeremy Schmutz Astrid Terry Peter D Vize Wesley C Warren Dan Wells Andrea Wills Richard K Wilson Lyle B Zimmerman Aaron M Zorn Robert Grainger Timothy Grammer Mustafa K Khokha Paul M Richardson Daniel S Rokhsar
The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease genes. Over 1 million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like that of other tetrapods, the genome of X. tropicalis contains gene deserts enriched for conserved noncoding elements. The genome exhibits substantial shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.