TRIM proteins and the innate immune response to viruses
Many TRIM proteins are up-regulated by interferons, suggesting that they might be involved in the innate immune response against viruses. Indeed, some members of the family have been shown to be either regulators of the interferon pathways or to be directly involved in the restriction of viruses. While the mechanisms of actions are varied, the modular organization of these proteins seems to be important for their activities, many of which are linked to the ubiquitination/proteasomal degradation system. The different domains enable the TRIM proteins to interact with either viral components or signaling molecules in the interferon induction pathways.